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Find more Classroom Connections: Wordplay
Encourage playful discovery while introducing common language devices with these titles and activities.
From a young age, children learn to appreciate wordplay, which for many starts with the bouncy rhythms and neat rhymes of Mother Goose. The books in this annotated bibliography allow kids to extend their love of language and learn new ways to play with words. Children will have fun with the following titles, which introduce and explain such language devices as idioms, similes, and palindromes.
Ann and Nan Are Anagrams: A Mixed-Up Word Dilemma. By Mark Shulman. Illus. by Adam McCauley. 2013. 40p. Chronicle, $16.99 (9781452109145). Gr. 1–3.
When Robert, “or Bert,” goes to visit his grandma, he learns that anagrams are different words that have exactly the same letters. A dilemma then ensues when his grandma asks him to bring his aunt, who is “a nut.” Suddenly, anagrams (more than 101) are everywhere! Accompanied by retro-style artwork in primary colors, the text uses various fonts to highlight the anagram pairings.
Elvis Lives! And Other Anagrams. By Jon Agee. Illus. by the author. 2000. 80p. Farrar, o.p. Gr. 4–8.
This small-sized compilation of witty anagrams will appeal to younger and older readers alike. Sophisticated, humorous black-and-white cartoons add depth to such word pairings as “Piet Mondrian,” which is transformed to “I paint modern,” while “A psychiatrist” is scrambled to form “Sit, chat, pay, sir.”
Homographs and More
Aunt Ant Leaves through the Leaves: A Story with Homophones and Homonyms. By Nancy Coffelt. Illus. by the author. 2012. 32p. Holiday, $16.95 (9780823423538). Gr. 1–4.
Reminiscent of “The Little Red Hen,” this story features a monkey who can’t drive his cart full of bananas home to make banana-cream pie. He asks several friends for assistance, using homophones and homonyms in the process, but each animal pal gives an excuse. Only the ants, used to carrying heavy objects, agree to help. An explanation of homophones and homonyms ends the book.
A Bat Cannot Bat, a Stair Cannot Stare: More about Homonyms and Homophones. By Brian P. Cleary. Illus. by Martin Goneau. 2014. 32p. Millbrook, lib. ed., $16.95 (9780761390329). 428. K–Gr. 3.
Bouncy, rhyming text begins with a definition of homonyms and gives such silly examples as, “A bat cannot bat, as you need arms for that.” Illustrated with zany monsters, the book continues with a similar treatment of homophones. Colored words highlight the homonyms and homophones, while concluding charts explain their differences. Part of the popular Words Are CATegorical series.
Cat Tale. By Michael Hall. Illus. by the author. 2012. 40p. Greenwillow, $16.99 (9780061915161). PreS–Gr. 1.
After three cats embark on an imaginary trip, they are guided by homonyms and homophones that build upon one another in this rhyming story. For example: “They flee a steer. / They steer a plane. / They plane a board. / They board a train.” Digitally enhanced acrylic paintings and paper cutouts in bold colors and geometric shapes illustrate the increasingly fantastical adventure.
Dear Deer: A Book of Homophones. By Gene Barretta. Illus. by the author. 2007. 32p. Holt, paper, $7.99 (9780312628994). K–Gr. 2.
Aunt Ant now lives at the zoo. Using a variety of homophone pairs, she writes to her dear friend Deer to tell all about the animals and their comical activities, from the moose who loves mousse so much that he ate eight bowls to the doe who kneaded dough because she needed the dough. Zany watercolor illustrations extend the story, which highlights the homophones with capitalized text.
Did You Say Pears? By Arlene Alda. Illus. by the author. 2006. 32p. Tundra, $16.95 (9780887767395). 428.1. PreS–Gr. 1.
Through rhyming text and crisp color photos, Alda wonders about homonym and homophone pairings: “If all peas were letters / And blew were the sky . . . / If rows could be fragrant / And flower made pie.” Other examples are, perhaps, trickier, with sound-alike words: “If nails were on fingers.” A table with the words’ definitions and examples of usage concludes the book.
Half-Pipe Homonyms. By Anna Prokos and Debra Voege. Illus. by Jeff Chandler. 2009. 32p. Gareth Stevens, lib. ed., $26 (9781433900105). 428.1. Gr. 2–5.
Skateboarding champ Mayumi, nine, helps a TV broadcaster describe the sports action from his booth, and then goes on to compete and win. Throughout this title in the Grammar All Stars: Kinds of Words series, illustrated with cartoon graphics, bold type points out homonyms as well as homographs and homophones. Sidebars and back matter offer more definitions
I Scream, Ice Cream! A Book of Wordles. By Amy Krouse Rosenthal. Illus. by Serge Bloch. 2013. 40p. Chronicle, $16.99 (9781452100043). K–Gr. 3.
This collection of wordles (the author’s name for homophones) features groups of words that sound exactly the same but mean different things. After a little boy introduces readers to “heroes” and “he rows,” he encourages them to read the first wordle and guess its match before turning the page. Digitally enhanced mixed-media artwork illustrates more wordles, such as, “Who did it? Uh, not her / A knotter? An otter!”
The New Gnu Knew. By Rebecca Felix. 2014. 16p. illus. Amicus, lib. ed., $17.95 (9781607535706). 428.1. Gr. 1–3.
Following an explanation of homophones, double-page spreads feature trios of these sound-alike words (e.g., rode, road, and rowed) in a zoo setting. This book in the Hear Homophones Here series uses an early-reader format with a few sentences of large text, homophones in bold, and full-page color photos of zoo scenes. A concluding picture quiz reinforces comprehension
Outstanding in the Rain. By Frank Viva. Illus. by the author. 2015. 32p. Little, Brown, $18 (9780316366274). PreS–Gr. 2.
With highly graphic art, inventive cutouts, and a simplified palette, Viva takes readers on a wild trip to an amusement park, with the city skyline behind. The rhyming text accentuates the use of oronyms, words or phrases that sound the same but have different spellings and meanings (“ice cream” and “I scream”).
Zoola Palooza: A Book of Homographs. By Gene Barretta. Illus. by the author. 2011. 40p. Holt/Christy Ottaviano, $16.99 (9780805091076). Gr. 1–3.
Similar in spirit to Gene Barretta’s Dear Deer, this picture book uses pairs of homographs to describe a silly Zoola Palooza animal concert. For example, Carmen Chameleon’s entrance will entrance the audience, as she can produce a bowl of produce and blend into it. Colorful, energetic illustrations capture the fun, while capitalized text emphasizes the homographs in the story.
Birds of a Feather: A Book of Idioms and Silly Pictures. By Vanita Oelschlager. Illus. by Robin Hegan. 2009. 32p. Vanita, $17.95 (9780980016284). 440. K–Gr. 3.
Double-page spreads with large text and comical artwork introduce a variety of animal-related idioms, from “goose bumps” and “hogwash” to “bring home the bacon” and “bright eyed and bushy tailed.” Each entry also includes a definition and sample sentence incorporating the idiom. A concluding note explains what idioms are and points out contextual clues in the illustrations. A related book of food idioms is Oelschlager’s Life Is a Bowl Full of Cherries (2011).
Keep Your Eye on the Ball: And Other Expressions about Sports. By Sandy Donovan. Illus. by Aaron Blecha. 2012. 32p. Lerner, lib. ed., $26.60 (9780761378891). 428.1. Gr. 3–5.
Using a combination of digital cartoons and photos of children and professional athletes, this title in the It’s Just an Expression series explains common idioms related to sports. Each idiom begins with a childhood predicament at home or school and relates the idiom to the situation, such as Emma dropping the ball when it is time to clean her room. Also in the series: Until the Cows Come Home: And Other Expressions about Animals (2012).
Monkey Business. By Wallace Edwards. Illus. by the author. 2008. 32p. Kids Can, $18.95 (9781553374626). 428. Gr. 1–3.
During a serious meeting, Professor Apeson senses “monkey business going on.” More idioms are reflected through a menagerie of domestic and exotic animals. For example, Eloise, a fish with a craving for snails, accidentally opens a can of worms. Elaborate, fantastical illustrations show the absurdity of the literal meaning, while a list of figurative meanings concludes the book.
More Parts. By Tedd Arnold. Illus. by the author. 2001. 32p. Dial, $16.99 (9780803714175). K–Gr. 2.
When a little boy’s day starts off badly, his mom suggests that it “broke his heart.” Taking the expression literally, he starts to worry as he thinks of other body-related expressions that can be dangerous, from giving a hand to holding his tongue. This hilarious rhyming story, accentuated with zany illustrations, will pair well with Arnold’s Even More Parts (2007).
My Teacher Is an Idiom. By Jamie Gilson. Illus. by Paul Meisel. 2015. 144p. HMH, $16.99 (9780544056800). Gr. 1–4.
In this funny chapter book, it’s “Mind Your Manners Month” at school, but Richard and Patrick forget to mind theirs at lunch, creating a red-gelatin mess all over the vice principal. When Sophie, a new student from France, doesn’t know how to express her indignation, the three classmates learn lessons in both manners and idioms—and never draw a blank again.
Raining Cats & Dogs: A Collection of Irresistible Idioms and Illustrations to Tickle the Funny Bones of Young People. By Will Moses. Illus. by the author. 2008. 40p. Philomel, $17.99 (9780399242335). 428.1. K–Gr. 3.
Folk-art oil paintings in yesteryear settings illustrate nearly 50 common (and often humorous) idiomatic expressions, such as “in the doghouse,” “make a big splash,” “egg on your face,” and “skeletons in the closet.” Each idiom is also accompanied by a definition and a short passage with the idiomatic expression used in context.
Talking Turkey and Other Clichés We Say. By Nancy Loewen. Illus. by Adam Watkins. 2011. 24p. Picture Window, lib. ed., $27.32 (9781404862722). 428.1. Gr. 3–5.
Trish and Faye are “true blue friends” and “thick as thieves.” As they head to the fair to see a Bonus Brothers concert, they encounter a series of clichés that are either idioms or proverbs, illustrated with caricature artwork. Sidebars explain the use and effects of clichés, the definitions of those used in the book, and the historical background of some of the featured phrases.
That’s the Last Straw! (And Other Weird Things We Say). By Cynthia Amoroso. Illus. by Mernie Gallagher-Cole. 2011. 24p. Child’s World, lib. ed., $25.64 (9781609542306). 428.1. Gr. 1–3.
“Calm before the storm,” “flew the coop,” and “play your cards right” are just some of the more than two-dozen commonly used idioms introduced in this entry from the Sayings and Phrases series. Arranged alphabetically, the idioms are both defined and used in context. Other titles in Amoroso’s series include Hold Your Horses! (And Other Peculiar Sayings) (2011), I’m All Thumbs (And Other Odd Things We Say) (2011), and It’s a Long Shot (And Other Strange Sayings) (2011).
Big Bad Bunny. By Franny Billingsley. Illus. by G. Brian Karas. 2008. 40p. Simon & Schuster/Atheneum, $17.99 (9781416906018). PreS–Gr. 2.
There’s a big bad bunny that scritches, chomps, and splashes through the forest. Meanwhile, as Mama Mouse puts her little ones to bed, she notices that Baby Boo-Boo is missing. She follows the sounds, and readers soon discover that Big Bad Bunny and her missing little mouse are one and the same. Ideal for read-alouds and illustrated with childlike artwork, the story also incorporates several similes.
The Man with the Violin. By Kathy Stinson. Illus. by Dušan Petričić. 2013. 32p. Annick, $19.95 (9781554515653). 813. K–Gr. 2.
While adults hustle and bustle through a crowded metro station, only a little boy notices a street musician playing the violin, and he becomes entranced by the music. Later, he finds out that this musician was actually a world-renowned violinist. Examples of onomatopoeia and bursts of color depict sounds and their effects in this story, based on a real experiment with violinist Joshua Bell.
Mouse and Mole: Fine Feathered Friends. By Wong Herbert Yee. Illus. by the author. 2009. 48p. HMH, $15 (9780547152226). K–Gr. 3.
Good friends Mouse and Mole are eager to bird-watch once spring arrives. When they fail to find many birds, they carry out a silly but effective scheme in this early reader. Enhanced with energetic gouache illustrations, the story uses numerous examples of onomatopoeia throughout. The friends conclude their successful observation with a joint effort: a handmade book about birds.
Squeak, Rumble, Whomp! Whomp! Whomp! A Sonic Adventure. By Wynton Marsalis. Illus. by Paul Rogers. 2012. 32p. Candlewick, $15.99 (9780763639914). PreS–Gr. 2.
In this spirited, rhyming story, a young African American boy from New Orleans notes the diverse sounds he hears. Paired with digitally enhanced illustrations with bold lines, the text appears in large print, with examples of onomatopoeia highlighted in red. Although the boy notices universal sounds of alarm clocks and ambulances, many of the sounds capture the rich, specific musicality of his city.
Woodpecker Wham! By April Pulley Sayre. Illus. by Steve Jenkins. 2015. 40p. Holt, $17.99 (9780805088427). 598.7. PreS–Gr. 2.
Woodpeckers don’t just peck. They chop, bonk, tap, and slam. The brief, playful text features plenty of onomatopoeia describing a variety of woodpecker activities, from sending messages to preparing homes.
Palindromania! By John Agee. Illus. by the author. 2002. 112p. Farrar, paper, $7.97 (9780374400255). 793.734. Gr. 3–7.
Geometric black-and-white sketches add contextual clues in this title that features double-page scenarios involving palindromes, including many droll, sophisticated selections for a wide age range. For instance, in a scene entitled “Criminal Evidence,” a detective notices such palindromes as “mirror rim,” “trapeze part,” “bird rib,” and “balsa slab.”
Otto’s Backwards Day. By Frank Cammuso and Jay Lynch. Illus. by Frank Cammuso. 2013. 32p. TOON, $12.95 (9781935179337). K–Gr. 3.
A cat named Otto is eager for his birthday gifts to arrive in this graphic-novel early reader. When someone steals all of his birthday gifts and accessories, he enlists the help of mad scientist Professor Barkwords, who sends him to a backwards land. As palindrome-related creatures (including a robot named Toot with radar) help Otto out of funny adventures, he learns what really makes a birthday special.
Amelia Bedelia. By Peggy Parish. Illus. by Fritz Siebel. 1963. 64p. HarperCollins, $14.99 (9780062209696). K–Gr. 2.
Naive housekeeper Amelia Bedelia begins her first day at work in the mansion of a wealthy couple by undertaking her task list in a literal fashion. When she reads “dust the furniture,” she sprinkles powder all over the tables and chairs. The puns continue as she sits down with pencil and paper to “draw the drapes.” Equally humorous illustrations complete this children’s classic.
Animal Crackers Fly the Coop. By Kevin O’Malley. Illus. by the author. 2012. 40p. Walker, $16.99 (9780802798374). K–Gr. 3.
Because Hen would rather tell jokes than lay eggs, the farmer threatens to have her for dinner. She flies the coop and meets other joke-minded animals in Dog, Cat, and Cow. After a long day of walking, they notice a band of robbers planning their next heist. In this pun-filled story, reminiscent of the Brothers Grimm tale “The Bremen Town Musicians,” the animals unknowingly outwit the robbers with jokes.
E-MERGENCY! By Tom Lichtenheld and Ezra Fields-Meyer. Illus. by Tom Lichtenheld. 2011. 40p. Chronicle, $16.99 (9780811878982). Gr. 1–3.
One morning in the alphabet house, E comes down the stairs too quickly and becomes too bent to use. Streams of visual and written puns ensue as A takes action, and other letters try to fill in for E. But no matter how they arrange themselves, the letters find it hard to speak and understand language without E. This title also includes more word fun with common acronyms (e.g., TLC and ER) and a chart that shows the frequency of letter use.
The Little Red Pen. By Janet Stevens and Susan Stevens Crummel. Illus. by Janet Stevens. 2011. 56p. HMH, $17.99 (9780152064327). PreS–Gr. 2.
The Little Red Pen needs help grading papers or students won’t learn—and the sky might fall! In this pun-filled spoof of the “The Little Red Hen,” illustrated with humorous, detailed artwork, a pencil, a pair of scissors, an eraser, and other school supplies refuse to pitch in. But when the Little Red Pen tackles the work alone, and ends up in the trash can, the highlighter thinks of a bright idea to save her.
The Table Sets Itself. By Benjamin Clanton. Illustrated by the author. 2013. 40p. Walker, $16.99 (9780802734471). PreS–Gr. 2.
Izzy, a young girl, finds friends in a set of animated dishes. Together, they do such a good job of setting the table that they’re asked to do it each night in this charming picture book. Soon, the dishes are tired of being in the same arrangement every time and begin switching places. But Izzy’s mom reprimands them, and Dish runs away with Spoon. Jovial puns fill the pages as Izzy and her friends try to find Dish and Spoon and bring them back.
Zero the Hero. By Joan Holub. Illus. by Tom Lichtenheld. 2012. 40p. Holt/Christy Ottaviano, $16.99 (9780805093841). K–Gr. 3.
The number zero wants to see himself as Zero the Hero, but he feels that he doesn’t count for much, especially when he gets mistaken for circular objects and becomes invisible during addition. After he makes numbers disappear during multiplication, he rolls away. Snappy one-liners abound as roman numeral soldiers capture the numbers, and Zero the Hero saves his friends after all.
Muddy as a Duck Puddle and Other American Similes. By Laurie Lawlor. Illus. by Ethan Long. 2010. 32p. Holiday, $16.99 (9780823422296). 425. Gr. 1–3.
In this playful title, digital cartoonlike artwork gives contextual clues to 26 American folk expressions, arranged alphabetically. The illustrations also add to the humor of such similes as “welcome as a polecat at a picnic” or “independent as a hog on ice.” An author’s note describes how these phrases entered into American speech and follows with an explanation of each simile and its geographic origin.
My Dog Is as Smelly as Dirty Socks: And Other Funny Family Portraits. By Hanoch Piven. Illus. by the author. 2007. 40p. Random/Schwartz & Wade, $16.99 (9780375840524). K–Gr. 3.
After a girl is asked to draw a family portrait, she realizes that it doesn’t capture the true essence of her parents, brothers, and dog—or even herself. In a series of similes, she describes her family in more detail, from her father, who is as “jumpy as a spring,” to her dog, which is as “stinky as an onion.” Mixed-media collage artwork, which incorporates objects familiar in a child’s world, enhances this title, which ends with prompts for readers to create similar portraits.
My Heart Is like a Zoo. By Michael Hall. Illus. by the author. 2010. 32p. Greenwillow, $17.89 (9780061915116). PreS–Gr. 1.
Digital art rendered in bold colors and crisp geometric shapes illustrates this rhyming picture book, which uses animal-themed similes (e.g., “eager as a beaver,” “cozy as a clam,” “crafty as a fox,” and “chatty as a jay”) to describe feelings of love. A final spread reveals that the featured animals belong to a sleeping girl’s collection of beloved stuffed toys.
One Big Pair of Underwear. By Laura Gehl. Illus. by Tom Lichtenheld. 2014. 40p. Simon & Schuster/Beach Lane, $17.99 (9781442453364). PreS–Gr. 1.
In this wildly funny counting book, two brown bears hate to share, so only one gets to wear a coveted, enormous pair of underwear. Yaks, goats, seals, and a menagerie of other animals appear, and none want to share, either. Finally, a group of pigs shows how fun sharing can be. The rhythmic, rhyming, and alliterative text presents numerous tongue twisters and laugh-out-loud scenarios.
Orangutan Tongs. By Jon Agee. Illus. by the author. 2009. 32p. Disney/Hyperion, o.p. Gr. 1–4.
Inspired by classic tongue twisters, the 34 rhyming poems in this collection are challenging to read aloud quickly. Boxy, cartoonish paintings illustrate such outlandish topics as fake hiccups, dinner with an ogre, feeding moose muesli, and tree toads that need their shoes tied. An abundance of alliteration also keeps the poems lively.
More Word Fun
CDB! By William Steig. Illus. by the author. 1968. 48p. Simon & Schuster, $17.99 (9780689831607). 793.73. Gr. 1–4.
In this wordplay classic, Steig cleverly combines letters and a few numbers to make phrases and sentences. “I M N D L-F-8-R,” for example, can be read as “I am in the elevator,” and “U 8 L D X!” can be read as “You ate all the eggs!” Expressive line-and-watercolor artwork in Steig’s signature style offers clues to help decipher the text, while a concluding answer key helps tackle the toughest letter combinations.
Runny Babbit: A Billy Sook. By Shel Silverstein. Illus. by the author. 2005. 96p. HarperCollins, $18.99 (9780060256531). 811. Gr. 2–4.
In this posthumously published work of spoonerisms, the verbal game of transposing words’ first consonants, inverted letters transform a bunny rabbit into a “runny babbit.” Silly poems with more inverted letters describe scenes (such as “kugs and hisses” with “Polly Dorkupine”) and encourage readers to both imagine the runny babbit’s adventures and decipher the original text. Silverstein’s signature black line drawings extend the humor.
Word Wizard. By Cathryn Falwell. Illus. by the author. 1998. 32p. Clarion, paper, $6.99 (9780618689248). K–Gr. 3.
While eating cereal with alphabet letters, Anna transposes, adds, and subtracts letters, and discovers that she is a word wizard. In pretend play with a smaller boy who is lost, Anna uses letters to help him find his way home, turning his tears into a stream, crossing the ocean in a canoe, and more. Illustrated with cut-paper collage, the text uses colorful fonts to distinguish the word pairs.
Wumbers. By Amy Krouse Rosenthal. Illus. by Tom Lichtenheld. 2012. 40p. Chronicle, $16.99 (9781452110226). 793.73. Gr. 1–3.
Inspired by William Steig’s CDB!, Rosenthal writes scenarios with words formed with numbers. A double-page spread depicting a penguin wedding, for example, includes the line, “When you m8 4ever, it 10ds 2 be a 4mal affair.” Just as in Steig’s original work, humorous illustrations, rendered here in ink and pastels, lend context clues. The endpapers include more word-number combinations.
The following are suggestions for implementing the Common Core State Standards across the curriculum with books about language devices, such as idioms, similes, and palindromes. You can find more information about the standards at www.corestandards.org.
In the Classroom: After sharing My Dog Is as Smelly as Dirty Socks: And Other Funny Family Portraits, by Hanoch Piven, have students identify the book’s similes individually or in a whole-class group. Students can then create their own similes based on family members, friends, pets, and more. You can offer prompts (e.g., playful, loud, etc.), or have the class generate them.
Common Core Connections
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.2.4. Describe how words and phrases (e.g., regular beats, alliteration, rhymes, repeated lines) supply rhythm and meaning in a story, poem, or song.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.2.5. With guidance and support from adults and peers, focus on a topic and strengthen writing as needed by revising and editing.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.3.5. Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships and nuances in word meanings.
In the Classroom: After reading Aunt Ant Leaves through the Leaves: A Story with Homophones and Homonyms, by Nancy Coffelt, ask students to identify the pairs of sound-alike words from the text and group them as either a homophone or homonym. Each student can then select a pair of words to use correctly in a paragraph or story.
In the Classroom: Read aloud both Animal Crackers Fly the Coop, by Kevin O’Malley, and Brian Wildsmith’s The Bremen Town Musicians (2012) or another traditional retelling of the Brothers Grimm tale. Afterward, have students compare and contrast the two versions of the story, noting how the puns add humor to O’Malley’s retelling.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.2.9. Compare and contrast two or more versions of the same story (e.g., Cinderella stories) by different authors or from different cultures.
In the Classroom: Ask students to use the illustrations in Monkey Business, by Wallace Edwards, to identify the literal meaning of the idiomatic expressions used throughout the book. Then direct students to work out the figurative meaning of the phrases individually, in small groups, or as a class. Students can also draw their own literal interpretations of idiomatic expressions and then ask classmates to guess the correct answer.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.1.5. Add drawings or other visual displays to descriptions when appropriate to clarify ideas, thoughts, and feelings.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.2.7. Use information gained from the illustrations and words in a print or digital text to demonstrate understanding of its characters, setting, or plot.
In the Classroom: After the class has read Mouse and Mole: Fine Feathered Friends, by Wong Herbert Yee, select a passage from the book and ask students to identify examples of onomatopoeia in the text. The class can then create a list of other common examples of onomatopoeia (e.g., crash, bang, crack, etc.), and students can select one or more words from the list to use in a paragraph or story.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RL.1.4. Identify words and phrases in stories or poems that suggest feelings or appeal to the senses.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.2.5.a. Identify real-life connections between words and their use (e.g., describe foods that are spicy or juicy).
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.3.5. With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, and editing.
Angela Leeper is the Director of the Curriculum Materials Center at the University of Richmond (Virginia.)
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